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Groves (1987) defines measurement error as the "discrepancy between respondents' attributes and their survey responses" (p. Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire involves several steps taking considerable time.

This article describes the sequential steps involved in the development and testing of questionnaires used for data collection.

This article describes the process for developing and testing questionnaires and posits five sequential steps involved in developing and testing a questionnaire: research background, questionnaire conceptualization, format and data analysis, and establishing validity and reliability.

Systematic development of questionnaires is a must to reduce many measurement errors.

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Abstract Questionnaires are the most widely used data collection methods in educational and evaluation research.

Figure 1 illustrates the five sequential steps involved in questionnaire development and testing.

Each step depends on fine tuning and testing of previous steps that must be completed before the next step.

Questionnaires help gather information on knowledge, attitudes, opinions, behaviors, facts, and other information.

In a review of 748 research studies conducted in agricultural and Extension education, Radhakrishna, Leite, and Baggett (2003) found that 64% used questionnaires.

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